Summary of developed and potential waterpower of the United States and other countries of the world, 1955-62
Estimates of potential waterpower and historical data on waterpower developments in various parts of the world are assembled in this report. Salient characteristics of the period studied, 1955-62, include increased use of the underground powerhouse, multiple-purpose developments, and use of storage (including pumped storage) to increase the value of waterpower for peaking purposes. High-voltage longdistance transmission has been improved, especially in the United States, Sweden, and the
... , and generating facilities tend to be larger than ever before. Asia leads the continents in total potential waterpower; Europe is first in use of waterpower. In rate of increase of waterpower installations and in percent of hydroelectric to total installations Africa is first among the continents. The 1955-62 period saw a great increase in per capita consumption of electric energy. Norway leads all countries with annual consumption of about 9,000 kwhr per capita. Waterpower development was carried on in a majority of the countries of the world and in most of them at an accelerated rate. High-voltage long-distance transmission has increased, especially in the United States, Sweden, and the U.S.S.R. The U.S.S.R. transmits the highest voltage (525 kilovolt) and is planning an 800-kv line for the Urals. Direct-current transmission is being seriously studied in many countries and some important lines are now in operation. Leaders in this field are England and France (cross channel), New Zealand, Sweden, and the U.S.S.R. An experiment in direct-current transmission is now being conducted by the Bonneville Power Administration, Dept. of the Interior. A 5-mile 1.1million volt d.c. line at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, is the experimental line. Several estimates of potential power have been made since 1955. The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe has made official or preliminary estimates for most of the European countries. In 1962 the Geological Survey's Branch of Waterpower Classification completed a revised estimate of potential power at all sites judged technically feasible of exploitation in the public-land States. Table 10 in the "United States" section of this report presents the new estimate 988 984 932 873 777 780 740 735 710 650 636 630 617 600 593 590 537 52(1 Type Arch. Rockfill.