Spinal 2-Chloroprocaine: A Dose-Ranging Study and the Effect of Added Epinephrine
Anesthesia and Analgesia
With the availability of preservative- and antioxidant-free 2-chloroprocaine (2-CP), there may be an acceptable short-acting alternative to lidocaine for spinal anesthesia. We examined the safety, dose-response characteristics, and effects of epinephrine with spinal 2-CP. Six volunteers per group were randomized to receive 30, 45, or 60 mg of spinal 2-CP with and without epinephrine. Intensity and duration of sensory and motor blockade were assessed. When 11 of the 18 volunteers complained of
... gue, nonspecific flu-like symptoms, breaking of the blind revealed that all spinal anesthetics associated with the flu-like symptoms contained epinephrine. There were no complaints of flu-like symptoms in the volunteers who received 2-CP without epinephrine. No further spinal anesthetics containing epinephrine were administered, resulting in 29 anesthetics (11 with epinephrine, 18 without epinephrine.) Plain 2-CP demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in peak block height and duration of effect at all variables except time to 2-segment regression and time to regression to T10. Time to complete sensory regression with plain 2-CP was 98 +/- 20, 116 +/- 15, and 132 +/- 23 min, respectively. 2-CP with epinephrine produced times to complete sensory regression of 153 +/- 25, 162 +/- 33, and 148 +/- 29 min, respectively. Preservative and antioxidant free 2-CP can be used effectively for spinal anesthesia in doses of 30-60 mg. Epinephrine is not recommended as an adjunct because of the frequent incidence of side effects.