Optimization of technological process of mustard production from the aspect of the aromatic complex formation [thesis]

Dragana Paunovic
Članovi komisije: dr Branislav Zlatković, redovni profesor, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Poljoprivredni fakultet dr Slavica Jelačić, vanredni profesor, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Poljoprivredni fakultet dr Tatjana Šolević-Knudsen, naučni saradnik, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut za hemiju, tehnologiju i metalurgiju -Centar za hemiju dr Branka Bukvić, vanredni profesor u penziji, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Poljoprivredni fakultet Datum odbrane: "Bajka bez ljubavi je meso bez senfa, bezukusan obrok"
more » ... kusan obrok" Anatole France UNIVERZITET U BEOGRADU POLJOPRIVREDNI FAKULTET Beograd-Zemun OPTIMIZACIJA TEHNOLOŠKOG POSTUPKA PROIZVODNJE SENFA SA STANOVIŠTA STVARANJA AROMATSKOG KOMPLEKSA R e z i m e Moderna prehrambena industrija se poslednjih decenija temelji na proizvodnji hrane koja je nutritivno vredna i koja svojim funkcionalnim svojstvima obezbeđuje pozitivan uticaj na zdravlje ljudi. Senf nije samo začin kojim se obogaćuju ukus i miris mnogim jelima, već je namirnica koja umnogome poboljšava metabolički sistem organizma i koja svojim komponentama doprinosi prevenciji nekih bolesti. U okviru ove doktorske disertacije optimizovan je tehnološki postupak proizvodnje četiri vrste senfa sa aspekta stvaranja aromatskog kompleksa. Proizvedeni su blagi senf, senf sa začinskim biljem, senf za roštilj i senf sa čilijem. Pre početka proizvodnje urađena su mikrobiološka ispitivanja sirovina koje ulaze u sastav receptura i kontrola kvaliteta suncokretovog ulja koje je komponenta u proizvodnji senfa. Svaki od ova četiri uzorka je dobijen nakon ispitivanja niza probnih receptura, korigovanjem ukusa, mirisa, boje i konzistencije uz senzorno ocenjivanje stručnog tima degustatora. Najbolji uzorci su senzorno ocenjivani i u odnosu na iste vrste senfa koji se mogu naći na domaćem tržištu. Senzorno ocenjivanje je obavljeno na osnovu deskriptivnog analitičkog bod sistema. Rezultati su statistički obrađeni. Na svim uzorcima su urađena fizičko-hemijska, mikrobiološka ispitivanja, kao i fizičkohemijska ispitivanja kontaminanata (sadržaj ostataka pesticida, teških metala i mikotoksina) i određena je energetska vrednost uzorka. Svi rezultati su pokazali da su uzorci četiri vrste senfa u skladu sa Pravilnikom o kvalitetu i drugim zahtevima za senf, Pravilnikom o kvalitetu i uslovima upotrebe aditiva u namirnicama i o drugim zahtevima za aditive i njihove mešavine, Pravilnikom o mikrobiološkoj ispravnosti namirnica u prometu i Pravilnikom o količinama pesticida, metala i metaloida i drugih otrovnih supstancija, hemioterapeutika, anabolika i drugih supstancija koje se mogu nalaziti u namirnicama. Eksperiment je imao za cilj da se izvrši analiza degradacionih produkata sinalbina u proizvedenom blagom senfu. Uzorci su ekstrahovani u Soxhlet-ovom sistemu, a potom analizirani metodama gasne hromatografije-masene spektrometrije. Rezultati su poređeni sa rezultatima mlevenog semena bele slačice koje je korišćeno u procesu proizvodnje senfa. Ovi rezultati ukazuju na to da su dominantne masne kiseline, prvobitno prisutne u semenu bele slačice takođe prisutne i u gotovom proizvodu, blagom senfu. Najobilniji degradacioni proizvod sinalbina u senfu bio je 4-(hidroksimetil)fenol. Druga identifikovana jedinjenja u senfu bila su: 4-metil fenol, 4-etil fenol, 4-(2-hidroksietil)fenol i 2-(4-hidroksifenil) etanska kiseline. Jedinjenje 2-(4-hidroksifenil)acetonitril, jedno od glavnih produkata degradacije glukozinolata sinalbina, i jedno od glavnih prekursora 4-(2-hidroksietil)fenola u reakciji degradacije sinalbina, nije otkriveno u ovom uzorku. To ukazuje da je ovo jedinjenje nestabilno u uslovima poluindustrijske proizvodnje senfa. Eksperiment je izveden sa ciljem da se analizira sastav isparljivih komponenata u semenu bele slačice sa posebnim osvrtom na sekundarne produkte oksidacije ulja u sirovini. Uzorci su takođe ekstrahovani u Soxhlet-ovom sistemu, a potom analizirani metodama gasne hromatografije-masene spektrometrije. Rezultati su pokazali da isparljiva jedinjenja, za razliku od masnih kiselina, predstavljaju manje od 1 % svih jedinjenja prisutnih u ekstraktu. Šesnaest isparljivih jedinjenja su identifikovana u ispitivanom uzorku mlevenog semena bele slačice. Pored jedinjenja koja prirodno daju aromu, identifikovan je čitav niz zasićenih i nezasićenih aldehida sa jednom ili dve dvogube veze: C 6 , C 7 , C 8 i C 9 alkanali; C 7 , C 8 , C 9 i C 10 2-enali i C 7 , C 10 i C 12 2, 4-dienali. Dokazano je da su nezasićeni aldehidi (2alkenali i 2,4-dienali), kada su prisutni u visokim koncentracijama, indikatori rane faze oksidacije lipida u semenu bele slačice. Ključne reči: blagi senf; seme bele slačice; degradacioni produkti sinalbina; oksidacija lipida; GC-MS Naučna oblast: Tehnološko inženjerstvo Uža naučna oblast: Nauka o konzervisanju S u m m a r y In recent decades the modern food technology is based on the production of food that are nutritionally valuable and that their functional properties provide a positive effects on human health. Mustard is not just a spice that enriches the taste and smell to many foods, but it is also the foodstuff that greatly improves the metabolic system of a human body and its components contribute to the prevention of some diseases. Within this Ph.D. Dissertation a technological process of production of four kinds of mustard is optimized from the aspect of the aromatic complex formation. Mild mustard paste, mustard paste with herbs, barbecue mustard paste and chili mustard paste were produced. Before the start of production microbiological analyses were done on the raw materials. Quality control of the sunflower oil, which is a component in mustard paste, was analyzed as well. Each of the four samples was obtained after a detailed examination of series of test recipes, adjustment of the taste, aroma, color and consistency with the sensory evaluation team of professional tasters. The best samples were sensory evaluated and compared to the same type of mustard that can be found in the domestic market. Sensory evaluation was conducted with the descriptive analytical method, system of scoring. The results were statistically analyzed. All samples were analyzed by physico-chemical analyses, microbiological analyses, physical-chemical analyses of contaminants (the contents of pesticide residues, heavy metals and mycotoxins) and energy value of the sample. All results showed that the samples of four kinds of mustard were in accordance with the Regulation on quality and other requirements for mustard, Regulation on the quality and conditions of usage of additives in food and the other requirements for additives and their mixtures, Regulation on microbiological food safety in the market and Regulation on the amount of pesticides, metals and metalloids and other toxic substances, chemotherapeutics, anabolics and other substances which can be found in food. The purpose of the experiment was investigation of sinalbin degradation products in produced mild yellow mustard paste. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The results were compared with the analysis of the ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. These results indicate that the dominant fatty acids, originally present in the white mustard seeds, are also present in the mustard paste condiment made from this plant. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethyl)phenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethanoic acid. 2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl) acetonitrile, one of the main degradation products of glucosinolate sinalbin, and one of the main precursors of 4-(2hydroxyethyl)phenol during sinalbin degradation reaction, has not been detected in this sample, indicating that this compound is unstable under conditions used for semi-industrial production of this mustard paste condiment. The experiment was conducted with the aim to analyze the total profile of volatiles in white mustard seeds with a particular emphasis on the secondary lipid oxidation products of oil in this material. The samples were also extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The results showed those volatile compounds different from fatty acids represented less than 1 % of all compounds present in the extract. Sixteen volatile compounds were identified in the mustard seeds investigated. Besides the natural flavor compounds, a whole series of saturated and unsaturated aldehydes with one or two double bonds was identified: C 6 , C 7 , C 8 and C 9 alkanals; C 7 , C 8 , C 9 and C 10 2-enals and C 7 , C 10 and C 12 2,4-dienals. It was proven that unsaturated aldehydes (2-alkenals and 2,4-dienals), when present in high concentrations, can be indicators of an early stage of lipid oxidation in white mustard seeds.
doi:10.2298/bg20121221paunovic fatcat:stype7sluvcpzlomd5j2mbu4iu