COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ELISA AND RAPID SCREENING TECHNIQUES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF HCV IN HAEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, SOUTH BIHAR, INDIA
English

Maheshwar Narayan Singh, Arjun Lal, Chandan Kumar Poddar, Syed Khursheed Ejaz
2017 Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences  
BACKGROUND Globally, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection became one of the major health problems. Mainly HCV infection attacks the liver and can cause chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis (27%) and liver cancer (25%) and shows significant mortality and morbidity. Worldwide, approximately 2% -3% (around 170 million) of population was chronically infected with HCV. Hence, every year more than 5,00,000 people die with HCV related complications. According to WHO safe blood is a universal right, which
more » ... rsal right, which means blood that is fully screened and harmless to the recipient and is not contaminated with any blood-borne pathogenic diseases such as HIV, HCV and HBV. In this study, comparative evaluation was made of ELISA and Rapid Screening Techniques for the Diagnosis of HCV in Haemodialysis patients in a tertiary care hospital, South Bihar, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Design-A cross-sectional study was carried out in all aged patients on haemodialysis disease attending the OPD, tertiary care hospital in Gaya (Bihar), India, after obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee approval over a period of two years from May 2015 to May 2017. All the consecutive patients during the study period who were all aged and gave written informed consent were included in the study. Age, gender and clinical history of the patients were recorded in the case record form after written informed consent. RESULTS A total of 800 blood samples from patients in the Department of Microbiology and Haemodialysis Centre of Anugrah Narayan Magadh Medical College, Gaya, Bihar and Associated Hospital of Bihar were screened for anti-HCV antibody. The overall prevalence of HCV was found to be 2.5%. The mean age of infected patients in the study group was 37.7 ± 1.32 years (range 19 to 76 years). Of the 800 samples tested, 2.75% were positive for HCV by ELISA test and 2.5% were positive by Rapid test [Table 2] [Chart 2]. Considering the results of HCV ELISA test, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of ELISA were 95.65%, 99.74%, 91.67% and 99.87% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Rapid test were 95.24%, 99.74%, 90.90% and 99.87% respectively. CONCLUSION In conclusion in the present study the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of ELISA were 95.65%, 99.74%, 91.67% and 99.87% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Rapid test were 95.24%, 99.74%, 90.90% and 99.87% respectively. An ideal rapid test is a boon in time-saving situations like dialysis. Since HCV screening by a rapid test is easier, time saving, can be easily performed by any trained health care worker at any time of need, it can definitely be preferred as a screening test not only before haemodialysis but also for any other emergency surgery. It is cost effective also. KEYWORDS Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Immunochromatographic Test Kit (ICT), ELISA, Haemodialysis, Chronic Kidney Disease. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Singh MN, Lal A, Poddar CK, et al. Comparative evaluation of ELISA and rapid screening techniques for the diagnosis of HCV in haemodialysis patients in tertiary care hospital, South Bihar, India. J. Evolution Med. Dent. Sci. 2017;6(93):6683-6687,
doi:10.14260/jemds/2017/1448 fatcat:z4lzbo54gbdovlcm6v72golqqi