The Multiple Aperture SAR Interferometry (MAI) Technique for the Detection of Large Ground Displacement Dynamics: An Overview

Pietro Mastro, Carmine Serio, Guido Masiello, Antonio Pepe
2020 Remote Sensing  
This work presents an overview of the multiple aperture synthetic aperture radar interferometric (MAI) technique, which is primarily used to measure the along-track components of the Earth's surface deformation, by investigating its capabilities and potential applications. Such a method is widely used to monitor the time evolution of ground surface changes in areas with large deformations (e.g., due to glaciers movements or seismic episodes), permitting one to discriminate the three-dimensional
more » ... (up–down, east–west, north–south) components of the Earth's surface displacements. The MAI technique relies on the spectral diversity (SD) method, which consists of splitting the azimuth (range) Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) signal spectrum into separate sub-bands to get an estimate of the surface displacement along the azimuth (sensor line-of-sight (LOS)) direction. Moreover, the SD techniques are also used to correct the atmospheric phase screen (APS) artefacts (e.g., the ionospheric and water vapor phase distortion effects) that corrupt surface displacement time-series obtained by currently available multi-temporal InSAR (MT-InSAR) tools. More recently, the SD methods have also been exploited for the fine co-registration of SAR data acquired with the Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans (TOPS) mode. This work is primarily devoted to illustrating the underlying rationale and effectiveness of the MAI and SD techniques as well as their applications. In addition, we present an innovative method to combine complementary information of the ground deformation collected from multi-orbit/multi-track satellite observations. In particular, the presented technique complements the recently developed Minimum Acceleration combination (MinA) method with MAI-driven azimuthal ground deformation measurements to obtain the time-series of the 3-D components of the deformation in areas affected by large deformation episodes. Experimental results encompass several case studies. The validity and relevance of the presented approaches are clearly demonstrated in the context of geospatial analyses.
doi:10.3390/rs12071189 fatcat:vdm3by6szje4darahy5tjxj534