The Effects of Industrialization on Education and Youth Labor in Indonesia

Maya Federman, David I. Levine
2005 Contributions in Macroeconomics  
This study examines the relationship between growth in manufacturing employment and youth outcomes in Indonesia from 1985 to 1995, a time of rapid industrialization. In comparison with cross-national studies, this study has a larger sample size of regions, defines data more consistently, and conducts better checks for causality and specification. We also distinguish between the effects of manufacturing employment in the region and in the household and explore potential causal mechanisms
more » ... ng the observed correlations. Overall, manufacturing employment in the region modestly increases enrollment and decreases labor force participation for male and female young teens. At the household level, employment of adult females in manufacturing is associated with lower enrollment and higher labor force participation for young women relative to young men.
doi:10.2202/1534-6005.1243 fatcat:vrkg6xqxurhbhjbvxzbkngws4q