Intestinal microbial metabolite stercobilin involvement in the chronic inflammation of ob/ob mice
It is crucial that the host and intestinal microflora interact and influence each other to maintain homeostasis and trigger pathological processes. Recent studies have shown that transplantation of the murine intestinal content to recipient germ-free mice enables transmission of the donor's phenotypes, such as low level chronic inflammation associated with lifestyle-related diseases. These findings indicate that intestinal bacteria produce some molecules to trigger pathological signals.
... al signals. However, fecal microbial metabolites that induce obesity and the type II diabetic phenotype have not been fully clarified. Here, we showed that the intestinal bacterial metabolite stercobilin, a pigment of feces, induced proinflammatory activities including TNF-α and IL-1β induction in mouse macrophage RAW264 cells. Proinflammatory stercobilin levels were significantly higher in ob/ob mice feces than in the feces of control C57BL/6 J mice. Moreover, in this study, we detected stercobilin in mice plasma for the first time, and the levels were higher in ob/ob mice than that of C57BL/6 J mice. Therefore, stercobilin is potentially reabsorbed, circulated through the blood system, and contributes to low level chronic inflammation in ob/ob mice. Since, stercobilin is a bioactive metabolite, it could be a potentially promising biomarker for diagnosis. Further analyses to elucidate the metabolic rate and the reabsorption mechanism of stercobilin may provide possible therapeutic and preventive targets.