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The study aims to investigate the effectiveness of two annotation types (text-only and text-picture) as well as the timing in annotation use during reading (pre-reading, while-reading and post-reading) on vocabulary learning of English major freshmen. Based on the analysis of the data collected from posttests and questionnaire, the following findings are obtained: 1) among three points of time in annotation use, the pre-reading annotation use results in the best vocabulary production anddoi:10.17507/tpls.1101.10 fatcat:kishznqi7rdcdpstr3bprcw7pi