Weight, volume, and physical properties of major hardwood species in the Southern Appalachian mountains [report]

Alexander III Clark, James G. Schroeder
1985 unpublished
The weight, volume. and physical prop~rties of trees 1 to 20 inches d.h.h. were determinerl for ba<;swo()d. hlaclrgum (upland). red m~ple, yellow-poplar, whitp oak, sweet birch, bl~ck locust, hickory. black oak, chestnut oak, northern red oak, scarlet oak, and white oak in the Southern ~ppalachian Mountains. Hard hardwoorls, soft hardwoods, and individual species equations are presented for predicting green and dry weight anrl green volump of the total tree above-stump and its compo~ents by
more » ... g d.h.h. and total height, d.h.h. and height to a 4-inch top, d.b.h. and saw-log merchantable height, and d.h.h. alone. Average specific grav·;i:Y, mclisture content, and weight per cubic foot of wood, bark, and wood and bark combined are presented for each species by tree size class and component. Bark per~er.tage is also presented for each species by tree size class and component. Procedure Field Trees were selected from fully stocked, uneven-aged hardwood stands on the Chattahoochee National Forest in Georgia and the Pisgah and Nantahala National Forests in North Carolina. A stratified rahdom sample of three to five trees per 2-inch d.b.h. class was selected at each sample location. Sample trees generally ranged from 5 to 20 or 22 inches d.b.h. Means and ranges in age and tree nimensions measured are shown in table 1 for each species and species group sampled. Stump height averaged 0.5 foot for trees 5.0 to 10.9 inches d.b.h. and 0.6 foot for trees> 11.0 inches d.b.h. Form class of the sawtimber-size trees (> 11.0 inches d.b.h.)-ranged from 64 to 91 and averaged 80 for the soft hardwoods, .and ranged from 61 to 90 and averaged 78 for the hard hardwoods. Each tree was felled and measured for d.o.b. at 4-foot intervals up the stem. Total height, and height to the saw-log top, 9-, 4-, and 2-inch d.o.b., and base of full live crown were also recorded. Cross-sectional disks of wood and bark were removed from the stem and hranches of sample trees for laboratory determi nat i on of spec i fi c gra vi ty, moi stu re content, ba rk percent age, energy value, and nutrient concentration. In all trees> 5.0 inches d.b.h. except sawtimher-quality trees (> 11.0 inches d.n.h. with a minimum of one 16-foot grade :1 log), disks were cut at-the butt, p.b.h., and quarter-points to the 4-inch d.o.h. top and at the 2-inch top. In sawtimher trees, disks were removed at the hutt, at each saw-log hucking point, and at the stem location where d.o.b. measured 9, 4, anri 2 inches. The branches of each tree were cut from the stem and weighed in four size categories: extra large (> 4.0 inches d.o.h.), large (2.0 to 3.9 inches d.o.h.), medium (0.6 to 1.q inches d.o.h.), and small « 0.5 inch d.o.b.). Three crosssectional disks were cut from randomly selecterl branches in each size category for analysis in the lahoratory. The stem of each tree was weighed by components (saw logs, pulpwood, and topwood) and the branches of each tree were wei ghted by si ze ·category. Laboratory Specific gravity was computed on green volume and ovendry weight. Moisture content ~",as computed on ovendry wei ght after samp 1 es were dri ed to a constant weight at 215 of. Percentage of bar~ WdS determined from disks and based on the green weight of sample disks~ Moisture content, specific gravity, and percentage of bark in stem, branches, and total tree were calculated by weighting disk values in propo rt i on to the vo 1 ume of the COl'lpOnent they rep resented. Wei ghted va 1 ues for moisture content were used to convert component green weights to ovendry 'Ilei ght • By using species diameter in~irle hark (d.i.h.) preniction equations, developed from d.o.h. and d.i.h. stem disk measurements, and the d.o.b. and he; ght meaSl1 rements taken at 4-foot i nterva 1 s up the stem of each tree, the vo 1 ume of wood in the ste~ to the saw log 9-inch, 4-inch, 2-inch, ann tip were calculated by Smalian's formula. Green weight per cuhic foot of stem hark and of hranch woan ann hark were " calculated from weighten values for specific gravity and moisture content with the equation: ? Green wei ght per cuhi c foot = [1 + ~ ] • (SG) • (C) 100 (1 )
doi:10.2737/se-rp-253 fatcat:wxi27qxtxnbaxbrk3tr6gqvxce