Overview of the Human Carcinogenicity Risk Assessment of Metallic Chromium and Trivalent Chromium

2005 The Internet Journal of Epidemiology  
This paper reviews evaluations and studies on the carcinogenicity in humans of metallic chromium and trivalent chromium as well as leather tanning and chromium plating and processing. The evaluations of the potential carcinogenicity of metallic chromium and trivalent chromium by international and national organizations and individual scientists are unanimous in that the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans. For some occupational sources of chromium exposure (e.g. ferrochrome
more » ... try and manufacture of chrome pigments) and for some occupations (e.g. leather tanners, painters and chrome platers) there are increased risks, but in most epidemiologic studies the available data do not permit discrimination between simultaneous exposure to trivalent and hexavalent chromium. Although the chromium compound that increases the risk of lung cancer and sinonasal cancer has yet to be identified, there is general agreement that hexavalent species are responsible for these diseases, and that the trivalent and metallic species are not. For cancers other than those of the lungs and sinonasal cavity, no consistent pattern of cancer risk has been demonstrated in workers exposed to chromium compounds.
doi:10.5580/1082 fatcat:rdfp2hrtibdv3e3uekjrpsi2bq