A Yankee in London

1847 Scientific American  
writes to President Eve· rett that the new telescope of Harvar� Uni· versity has resolved the great nebula'in Orion. He says: and magnitude here given ar!! by egtimation, th� observer being unprovided with any means of inst�umental measurement at the moment. All the appearan€es here mentioned were witnessed by two observers, from whom this statement has been received"one of them hav· ing been accustomed t9 scientific researches, The place whence the phenomenon was seen was the grnnd avenue of
more » ... e grnnd avenue of the Champ Elyse�s. A New Planet. Profe8sor Hind of London discovered, on August 13th\ another luminary in tne group of Asteroids. This morning, the atmospbere being in a favorable condition, at about three o'clock the telrscope was set upon the trapezium in the great nebula or Orion, Under a power of ' 200, the 5th star was immediately conspi. cuous; but our attention was directly absorb. ed with the splendid revelations made in its immediate neighborhood. This' part of the nebuljl was resolved into bright points of hght. The number of stars was too great to This makes the seventh known star in the attempt countir.g them; many weie howeve r group of Asteroids. It is of the ninth magni. re�dily located and mapped. The double tude, and is remarkable for the eccentricity of character of the brigh Jest star of the trape. its orbit and the length of its period of revo· �ium was readily recognized with a power of jp tion. , 600. This' is " Struve's 6th star;" and cer. The planet was first observed here on the bin of the stars composing the nebula were night of the 27th ultimo, by Professor Hub· &een as double stars under this power. bflrd, United State8 Navy, with the West It should be bome in mind that this neb u la TranRit Instrument. and that of Andromeda have beell the l a s t I Sir John Hershel proposes to call thi" planet strong hold of the nebular theory; that is, the Iris, a name which has been adopted in this idea; first tbrown out by tbe elrler Herschel, count'ry, of masses ,of nebulous matter in process of condensation into systems. Heat of the Plan"ts. Professor Henry of Princeton communicated to the American' Association of Geologists, Borne interestmg �xperiments, s ' howing the analogy betwecn light and heat. The expe· riments were made with a thermo·electrical apparatus, a very delicate instrument, w hieh will indicate 1·500th of a degree of a Fahren· heit thermometer It has been long known that two rays of light rnay be so thrown upon each other as to pronace darkness. Professor H. showed that two rays of heat might be so combined as to produce cold. Light and heat differ with respect to the length of the waves -those of the latter are longer than those of the former. Experiments ,were made upon flames. Some flames give little light but intellse heat, as for instance the flame of hy drogen gas, If a solid body is plunged into such a flame, th e radiant h':!,at will be increas ed as well as the radiant light. Experiments made upon the spots of, t.ae sun showed that they were colder than the surrounding parts; also that the surface of that body is varioulSly heated. Iron Mountain or Texas. Am&rlean Anttqulttes. The mounds of the Ohio valley are clearly di.tinguished from each other by position, structure, and contents. Some are deemed sepulchral; others are connected with the suo perstitions of the builders; others are the sites of ancient structures, and display the military system of the ancient people. The sepul· chral mounds stand isolated in groups; those which are deemed sacred, are found alone. Silver and copper are the only metals which have been developed from th� deposi. tions. The are 0f lead is quite abundant, and lead under the circum�tances implying a knowledge of its use on the part of the ancient people. No iron or trace of iron has been discovered except in the late deposites, and it is certain that the ancient people were wholly unacquainted with its use. The implements and ornaments discovered in the mounds are more genetlllly made of stone-and they wrought in the rarest mine· ral� with great skill. Their lance heads and cutting implements were generally n.ade of quartz, some of them from the pure limpid crystals of this mineral, and some from obsi· eian. From one altar· have. been taken seve· ral bushels of finely wrought spear.heads of milky quartz, nearly all of whicp have been broken up by the fire. In another altar a slight excavation disclosed upward of SIX hun· dred spear· heads • An Alarm at Sea. The captain of one of our down east schoo ners found himself one day becalmed in a fog off the Isle of Shoals, near Portsmouth, N H. The vessel lay with a slight motion, when the captain with the quick ear of a seamen, dis. covered by the creaking sound of cordage, that there was another vessel close upon him, which might run afoul in short order. He had neither gun nor trumpet, to give hill neighbor warning of their close approach; and the best thing he could think of was tl> set his men drumming" on some empty casks; but to no pnrpose, as the sound increased and the vessel was nearing him. As a last effort of ingenuity, he seized a hand,pik�, aad ap plying" it to the ear of an old grunter that hap. pened to pe ou boards, gave it several turns, none of the e;siest, which brought fortlt a squeal almost as' lciud as the big whistle of OUI' locomotive engines, T. his sig�al w�. ef· fectual; and just before coming in sight of his neighbors craft, bows on, he heard her captain exclaim to the man at the helm, in a voice of thunder, ' Starboard your helm, we 're close upon a hog yard .' Th� Ophielelde. There is a funny stllry toLd of the progen itor of this instrument. Some Arabs having surprised a detach ment of French soldiers In Algeirs, the band ot the re"iment fled in disorder. A fleet horseman ,pursued the un· fortunate ophicleide player, who encumbered by his instrument, gave himself up tor lost. The Arab approached, fury in his eye, with couched lance; when, just as the musician was on the point of receiving his quietus, ter ror inspil' ed him with WIt; he pre�ented the instl"Ument like a gun, at his foe, and the Ar. ab wheeled about, fancying It was a portable ten pounder, aud fled from the field, ieaving the musico equally a�tonished with himself, ar.d far better pleased by his ready brass. • A Yankee in London. In these mounds are discovered native si;· Hr and copper from the shores of Lake Supe. Among the sculptures are also some of the human head, Which display not only the chao racteristic teatures of' the ancient people, but also their modes of adjusting their hair, their style of ornament, &c. The skeletons belong, to two eras-those of the tribes inhabitIng the country when discovered by,the Euro· peans, and those of the builders of the mounds. None of the skeletons are at extra ordinary size, although the bones in some cases seem more maRsi ve than usual. Speci. mens of the carvings displayed no incunsider· able sk,ll and taste. The following description of London, from the pen of a wandering Yankee in that city, gives us a full knowledge of the great metro rior, pearls and shells from the southem polis. �ult, obsidian . probably . from the v � ka ? ic " Londoll is a small, thinly inhabited plac�, ,ndges ot •. ��� .. the prtmlij,�, 'conlaitiii'l'lra:bbut three mIllions of men, all ranges of the All;tnhC coast, galena from the sorts of WOifien, and some children," upper, and fossil teeth frum the tertiary depo' l He talks much in. his letter of the lions he liltes of the lower . Mississip p i, besides num· has seen; among the rest, Jenny Lind, and berless other remalDS. states his expedient for gaining access to the ABair Between a 1IIan 3nd a Partridge. th e atre, from whi . ch all were precluded who The app�ratus was applied to form ather mal·telescope-when tumed to the heavens, the coldest part was found to be directly over head. Thuuder clouds, sendipg 'forth flashes of lighlning, were found to be colder than the surrounding clouds. When turned to the moon there were some slight traces of heat, butthose were proved to be from the reflected heat of the sun. He .howed this to be the ca�e by an experiment which he performed on ice. In this experiment the ice reflected hea�. It has long been known that a burnir.g lens could be made of ice. The thermo·elec· trical telescope is capable of an infinite im· )1I'ovement. When"in a state of perfection H may reveal many new and interesting facts in a�tronoIllY, which thus far have only heen opened to si� h t. We have recently been informed by an in· telligent gentleman who resides in Fredp.r· icksburg, that the surveyors who have been engaged in running the boundary line of the German Colony, have discovered a mountain near the COllchos river thatOconsists entirely of iron are. Our informant states that a par· tion of this ore has been smelted and yield, seventy per cent of pure fran. According to the repre�entatioll of those who have visiled this mountain, it resembles the celebl' ated iron mountain of Missouri. It is not so Jarge as the mountain in Missouri, being only fuUl' or fi ve hundred feet high and probably halt a mile in circumference. We are informed however that a range of hills extend several miles north of it, that appear to be compos�d almost entirely of iron are. If we can rely on the statements of the hunters and survey. ors who have visited that section, the iron mines which have been discovered there are inexhaustible. Within a tract of country fif· tl" mi�e$lQng by twenty broad,..extending, from the east bank at the Oolorado' Jlorth'Wara to wards the Brazo, there is probably 8ufficlenl iro'l to supply all the fcrundries III the world for the next centur1-Owing, however, to the scarcity of fuel, this are, except in the imme· d iate vicinity of the Colorado and its tributa. ries, will probably remain for many years, perhaps for,centuries, as valueless as the sand hills of the desert.-Ho uston Star. The Ckureh of Saint Sophia at Constan tinople. A short time ago-at Capen herst, Ellgland, a were not in dl' ess coats, his being a frock; he hen belonging to a farmer took it into her pinned up the skirts inside, and passed: iii he�d ttl build a nest, and laid several eggs in the jam-thus comillg the Yankee over them, a field adjoining. hIS hou,Se.-During the same Naples. ����;tlO� of M.o� nt Versllvlus. interval a partrid!!e als6' laid several eggs in � • On the 2d of August towards evening, there Curious Celestial l"henOJnenOlJ. A �hOI" t time ago, a phenomenon was ob· eerved in the heavens, at Paris, resembling in form and splendor a comet of the large and brill iant class. The duration oT the appear· ance did not exceed thirty seconds. It ap· petred suddenly with its maximum lustre, which was suffi�ienlly intense to throw a This Church, which in the year 1453, was converted into a mosque, and which IS the the oldest Christian temple III existence, (ha ving been built by Justinian) is at present un· dergoing, by ord�r of the Sultan , a complete restoration under the dlrection of M. Fossati, an architect to whom his h.igbness has en· trusted this important operation. The work has been all' eady begu' n by taking ofl the bed of plaster which covers the superb mosai, cs with which the walls of Saint Sophia are de· comted, an� these monuments, not less rem· arkable relatIOn in to art, than i� a historical point of view, will be carofully repaired. The grand Signor has vi!'ited tbe work at st. Sophia, and expressed his satiiifaction to M. Fossati. aint light on tire objects around the ohserver, Height 01' Wa�er In the Laku. not unl ike the light sometimes shed by the The water ill the upper lakes is a loot low· planet Venus in intertrop,ical latitudes. The er than it was last year, and nearly three object becaU'e gradual!y but rapidly fainter, lower than it was Ii. ve years ago. This, with until it melted a ' lVay from the viiion. Its the accumulation of sand at the mouths of pur form was that of a comet with a small and harbors, render them much less easy of ac· brilliant head, and a tail wi th well defined pa· cess thlttl they have been for Borne .fears. On raUd sides without perceptible divergence. the other hand, the water of Lake Ontario is The tutallength was from fifteen to twenty continually growing higher. This fluctua degl'ees; the breadth about fifteen minutes of tion is coo!taotly gohg on, the highest varia· a degree. The object was manifested in the tion being about ten feel. The wafer has been heaveus in a direclion east, 01' nearly 80, and known to rise eighteen Inches in one year at at an altitude of ab,·ut six'y degrees, the di· the m�uth (.f the Genese;, but this was un· rectioll ()t its lengl!1 being parallel to the ho-p ' recedented. Tl1iR rise and faU of water has riz<ln. 1'10" time a!' its appeal'ance, ft�·t.,y mi. been much spec111ated upon, Ilod i� as much nute� pa,t eight, 1'. m. The firmament w�s a wonder of wouderd as the continual rise of hazy. lout f!'te from cloud., nnd tJ.e titars ofl lahd i[l No]"\\ay . and Sweden, which has ri" of lile �ec"lld and third ma';lIiluded wel ' e dis, ell 1800 feet the last 1200 yeara.-C,\icago tiucliy v l.sibk The elc!1ll eutd "1" its pusiti()ll I Trilm1u/. the same nest. When the period for incuba· was an eruptiol1 of Mount Vesuvius. A tortioa arrived, the hen first began to sit. Not rent of lava fell from the new crater, and in long, however had she been in pos s ession be· about thirty.five rr.inutes, reached the Piano fore the partridge made her appear a n c e, when del Ginistro. In many points of the old cra. a general tio"'ht took place. The partridge ter the aoil was cracked, and great masses of proved conqueror, hatched the eggs, and the fire were visible. 0 n the 5th, about midnight varied brood now range the fieM, tOKether, a ti-e.h torrent of lava fell in the dil' ection of the chickens equallY' as wild as the young Basco RealI. It was fifteen feet broad. The partridges. BaUoo .. lng III Turkey_ A FI' ench aeronaut, named Rosset made an ascent at Bagd�d last month, which excited the utmost astonishment amongst the specta. tors, totally unaccustomed to Buch a silght. The weather bfcomingcloudy the balloon dis· appeared. M. Losset,.in descending fell in· to the Tigris, and escaped with some difficul· ty. Meanwhile, a repol' t prevailed amongst the population, that he had gone to the moon, so that wh' en he appeared in public, he was such an object of I!uriosity, that the French Consul wa s oblrged to demand a, detachment from the Pacha to protect the house in which be resided. RaUw .. ,. Cars 1n Franee. Nothing can be Imagined more luxurious, in way of seat, than a first class FI' ellch car. You sit upon figured white silk or damask" and cushions yieJding to your slightest niove· ment, You have them at your side, you have taem for your head. Bmssds carpet to tr�ad upon, silk curtains to shut out the sun, and their cc)ustmclioll below is sllch that you feel no lif, but seem to be Bwim(Uing thr ' ough the air, " Don't rob your�elf!" a. the f,ll'mer said to the lawyer whell he c�lled bim harJ lIdmes. two new small craters were seet! vomiting burning 'Stones, and increasing the fear of the in habitants. Tho Doetor'g Coat.
doi:10.1038/scientificamerican10231847-35m fatcat:bbagrnbhczg7vjncsnlf2nlwya