Consider the unexpected: scaling ESD as a matter of learning
Environmental Education Research
a department of Education, sWEdEsd -swedish international centre of Education for sustainable development, uppsala university, uppsala, sweden; b Environmental learning and research center, rhodes university, Grahamstown, south africa ABSTRACT This article aims to introduce a view of scaling as a learning process. In the article we discuss the concept of 'scaling up' or 'scaling' of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) activities on the basis of how 'scaling up' ESD is highlighted in the
... highlighted in the UNESCO Global Action Programme (GAP) on ESD. Drawing on a Deweyan theory of learning as processes of transactional encounters, the article presents a conceptual framework of scaling-ESDactivities-as-learning. This conceptual framework is intended to have implications for ESD policy and ESE research. The theoretical specifications and practical implications presented are results of data collected using a participatory research approach (Re-Solve) and an abductive analysis. In this article, we argue that viewing scaling as a learning process enables a nuanced notion of scaling ESD-activities. This should be seen in relation to (a) complex sustainability challenges, (b) ethical aspects, (c) a more attentive and strict approach to scaling in ESD policy and (d) addressing questions of significant importance to scaling research.