Molecular analysis of lacI mutants from transgenic fibroblasts exposed to 1,2-epoxybutene
1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a genotoxic carcinogen that is bioacti- vated to at least two mutagenic metabolites: 1,2-epoxybutene (EB) and 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB). We reported previously that lacI transgenic mice exposed to BD had an increased frequency of specific base substitution mutations in the bone marrow and spleen relative to unexposed controls. In the experiments described here, we determined the mutagenicity and mutational spectrum of EB in Rat2 lacI transgenic fibroblasts as a means of
... asts as a means of assessing the contribution of this metabolite to the lacI mutational spectrum of BD. Rat2 cells were exposed to 0, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 or 1.0 mM EB for 24 h, resulting in a range of cell survival from 100 to 15%, respectively. Mutagenicity was assessed at 0, 0.6 and 1.0 mM EB. Unexposed controls had a background mutant frequency of 6 ⍨ 1 ⍨ 10 -5 , while the mutant frequency in cells exposed to 0.6 and 1.0 mM EB was increased 2-and 3-fold, respectively. DNA sequence analysis of 154 lacI mutants recovered in these experiments revealed an increase in the frequency of specific base substitution mutations in cells exposed to 1.0 mM EB compared with controls. These included G:C→A:T transitions at non-CpG sites, G:C→T:A transversions and A:T→T:A transversions, which have all been observed in lacI mutants isolated from transgenic mice exposed to BD. These results suggest that EB causes mutation primarily by base substitution and that the spectrum of these mutations closely resembles that of BD. These data, along with previous findings from our laboratory, suggest that EB is more likely than DEB to be primarily responsible for the lacI mutational spectrum observed in lacI transgenic mice exposed to BD.