SARS-CoV-2: From the pathogenesis to potential anti-viral treatments

Peyman Kheirandish Zarandi, Mohammad Reza Zinatizadeh, Maryam Zinatizadeh, Mohammad Hadi Yousefi, Nima Rezaei
2021 Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy  
The world is witnessing the spread of one of the members of Coronaviruses (CoVs) family, called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the 21st century. Considering the short time spent after its prevalence, limited information is known about the effect of the virus mechanism on different organs of the body; meanwhile the lack of specific treatment and vaccine for this virus has exposed millions of people to a big challenge. The review article aims to describe the
more » ... describe the general and particular characteristics of CoVs, their classification, genome structure, host cell infection, cytokine storm, anti-viral treatments, and inhibition of COVID-19-related ER-mitochondrial stress. In addition, it refers to drugs such as Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, darunavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, and favipiravir, which have undergone clinical trials for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment. This analysis was derived from an extensive scientific literature search including Pubmed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar performed. The effectiveness rate and complications of these drugs can reveal new insights into the potential therapeutic goals for the disease. Moreover, lifestyle change can effectively prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.
doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111352 pmid:33550050 fatcat:tcfi23rncjhaflfhwasiw4s3py