Prospects for improving immunoprophylaxis of infectious diseases

Alexander V. Stepanov, Vadim A. Myasnikov, Vasiliy Ya. Apcel
2021 Vestnik of Russian military medical Academy  
This study described the perspective and significance of using complex vaccine systems in improving immunoprophylaxis of major infectious diseases of various etiologies and genesis. Immunobiological drugs traditionally used for this purpose, along with the advantages, have disadvantages, such as increased reactogenicity and development of post-vaccine reactions and complications in some cases. Such adverse effects are serious obstacles to immunoprophylaxis on a mass scale. This circumstance was
more » ... the reason for the improvement of immunoprophylaxis, and the main focus was the creation of chemical, recombinant, and subunit vaccines. However, compared with traditional drugs, these vaccines have inferior effectiveness, even if they are practically reactogenic and do not lead to the development of post-vaccine reactions and complications. The main approaches to the development of effective and safe methods of immunoprophylaxis are considered based on the development of complex vaccine systems, and the components can be protective antigens, biologically active substances of the corresponding microorganisms, adjuvants applied or embedded in the corresponding biologically active, and safe biotechnological platforms. Among the latter, nanoparticles and microparticles of polylactoglycolic acid, liposomes, lipids, and copolymers are recognized as the most suitable for the construction of complex vaccine systems. This paper highlighted new trends in the development of these methods of immunoprophylaxis and their advantages in comparison with traditionally used immunobiological drugs. Moreover, prospects are characterized and examples of developed vaccine preparations are presented. The mechanisms of action of postvaccination immunity and factors that influence its formation are described.
doi:10.17816/brmma65107 fatcat:jbheri3kezamjnmjhx2rm3vk24