Urban Built-Up Area Boundary Extraction and Spatial-Temporal Characteristics Based on Land Surface Temperature Retrieval
The analysis of the spatial and temporal characteristics of urban built-up area is conducive to the rational formulation of urban land use strategy, scientific planning and rational distribution of modern urban development. Based on the remote sensing data in four separate years (1999, 2004, 2010 and 2014), this research identified and inspected the urban built-up area boundary based on the temperature retrieval method. Combined with the second land investigation data and Google map data in
... gle map data in Jingzhou, this paper used the qualitative and quantitative analysis methods to analyze the spatial-temporal characteristics of Jingzhou urban built-up area expansion over the past 15 years. The analysis shows that the entire spatial form of the urban built-up area has been evolving towards a compact and orderly state. On this basis, the urban area-population elasticity coefficient and algometric growth model were used to determine the reasonability of the urban sprawl. The results show that the expansion of built-up area in Jingzhou is not keeping up with the speed of population growth. the urban expansion features of Washington D.C. and depict the dynamics of urban expansion. In 2003, Zha et al.  presented a new method based on the Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), and this method has been successfully applied to automatically extract the urban land in Wuxi City, Eastern China, by manipulating the spectral bands of TM imagery. Data of MODIS and DMSP/OLS nighttime lights were used to map urban areas and urban expansion in China in recent years    . In 2007, Braimoh et al.  explored the spatial factors of land use change and analyzed the urban expansion of Lagos City on the west coast of the Gulf of Guinea. The Landsat TM data were used to analyze the changes of urban land, and the spatial factors were discussed. As the urban built-up area expands, the evaporation and heat loss of net radiation received by the underlying surface of the urban built-up area are less than those of the suburban and rural areas  . However, the heat stored in the heated underlying surface and the sensible heat flux are greater than those of the suburban and rural areas  . The land surface temperature of the built-up area is much higher than that of the suburban and rural areas due to the heat emissions from the residences, traffics, industries and manual labor in the built-up area  . A clear boundary of land surface temperature can usually be identified between the urban and rural areas  . The remote sensing data in the thermal infrared band can be used to retrieve the land surface temperature  . On this basis, the threshold method can be used to extract the boundary between the urban built-up area and the suburban and rural area. It was not until the 1980s that the algorithms for retrieving the land surface temperature were developed [17, 18] . Once the 1990s began, more intensive studies were devoted to the algorithms for retrieval of land surface temperatures, as well as the discussions of the ground emissivity and atmospheric transmittance as the important parameters for land surface temperature retrieval          . There have been no less than 17 proposed split window algorithms so far. Based on the methods used for parameter calculation, these algorithms fall into four categories: specific emissivity model, composite model, two-parameter model, thermal radiation model and simple model. From 2001-2015, a mono-window algorithm for retrieving the land surface temperature was described based on the Landsat 5  and 8  thermal infrared images, followed by a thorough analysis of the precision and error of land surface retrieval. This algorithm developed by Qin et al. in 2001  only requires three essential parameters for LST retrieval from the one TIR band data of Landsat TM/ETM+: ground emissivity, atmospheric transmittance and effective mean atmospheric temperature. In addition, a series of studies was performed on the techniques for estimating the ground emissivity, basic atmospheric parameters and mean atmospheric temperature      . In recent years, Jingzhou City's social and economic development has been accelerating under favorable urban development strategies. However, the fast urban growth, is not properly supervised. As an important city amidst the strategy of middle-part development and in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, Jingzhou City already exhibits a more profound development potential than many other small-and medium-sized cities. The research on the urban layout and functional division can shed new light onto the reasonable formulation of urban planning strategies. In addition, other similar small-sized cities can learn from the valuable experiences of Jingzhou  . The study of spatial-temporal characteristics and driving forces of urban expansion will be helpful for the monitoring of the dynamic change of urban land utilization in the process of urbanization and carrying out macro-control and management of land resources. Based on which boundary of the urban built-up area was extracted, we used the TM/ETM+/OLI_TIRS images of four time phases (1999, 2004, 2010 and 2014) to retrieve the land surface temperature. To identify the temporal-spatial characteristics of the urban built-up area expansion of Jingzhou City over the past 15 years, the qualitative and quantitative methods were combined. Finally, the urban area-population elasticity coefficient and algometric growth model were used to determine whether the urban sprawl is reasonable.