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Unlike car occupants, pedestrian crashes occur in a variety of postures (like stationary, walking, running or jogging etc). Muscle contraction, required to maintain the initial posture, modifies the load at the knee joint in rapid loading conditions. This study investigates the effect of muscle active forces on lower extremity injuries for various impact locations and impact angles for a freely standing pedestrian. Three different pre-impact conditions of a freely standing pedestrian,doi:10.1080/15389580802338228 pmid:19058101 fatcat:usv4alq6dnagjekvwv7cpzttqu