Epidemiological, clinical and zoonotic evidences for the existence of Lyme disease in Central of Mexico

G. Gordillo, F. Solorzano Santos, J. Torres, E. Velazquez, G. Ramon, R. Garcia, M. Vargas
2010 International Journal of Infectious Diseases  
Abstracts veterinary, medical, public health and socio-economics professionals to represent interaction between the disciplines at all stages of planning, surveillance and response to HPAI, e.g. outbreak investigation teams included individuals from both disciplines, trace back and contact tracing considered inter-species virus transmission, etc. Adult education specialists worked with the STOP AI technical team members to create clear messages and mechanisms to convey the information. Results:
more » ... The integrated STOP AI modules have repeatedly been field-tested with mixed groups of human and veterinary medical practitioners throughout sub-Saharan Africa. STOP AI monitored group response and uptake, and assessed comprehension of the new materials through observation and written evaluations. An integrated core curriculum on HPAI is being finalized which the University of Ghana's School of Public Health plans to offer as a Master's degree course elective in the spring of 2010. Conclusion: The zoonotic nature of emerging diseases has brought the medical and veterinary communities into closer working relationships, but with limited impact on their respective training activities. The STOP AI project in Africa is a leading example of the type of innovative training programs needed to better prepare public health and veterinary practitioners to address emerging infectious diseases. Background: Recent epidemics have underscored the importance of non-human viral reservoirs and the devastating impact of emerging viruses on human health. Broad understanding of the animal viruses circulating in a given region is crucial for monitoring emerging diseases, but is hindered by the inability to sample enough individuals and by the difficulty of characterizing previously undescribed viruses. As mosquitoes draw blood from animals and humans and are known to carry a number of viruses, metagenomic sequencing of viral particles purified from mosquitoes enables surveillance of the animal viruses circulating in a given region. Methods: To characterize actively circulating viruses and provide a baseline for detection of emerging viruses, viral metagenomics was performed on mosquitoes captured from San Diego, California. Virus particles were purified from mosquitoes through filtration, chloroform, and nuclease treatment. Nucleic acids were then extracted from the purified viral particles, and subjected to metagenomic sequencing followed by bioinformatic analysis. Results: This study identified a number of previously unknown DNA and RNA viruses from the mosquito virome. Highly diverse novel single-stranded DNA viruses were discovered, with limited amino acid identity (40-63%) to known human anellovirus and animal circovirus genomes in Gen-bank. One of the circoviruses showed a unique genomic organization with characteristics of several ssDNA viral types. Several closely related virus genomes were recovered from individual samples; however, viruses from different samples varied widely, indicating distinct virus profiles. A number of partial sequences from novel RNA animal viruses were also identified. New RNA viruses characterized from the mosquitoes had only extremely limited amino acid identity to members of the Bunyaviridae and Rhabdoviridae families. Conclusion: In summary, this study has identified a diversity of novel DNA and RNA viruses, successfully demonstrating that numerous unknown viral species are circulating in mosquitoes. Through the use of vector-based viral metagenomics, the animal viruses present in a given region can be characterized and used as a baseline to monitor emerging viruses of relevance to human and animal health.
doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2010.02.462 fatcat:n2kerq3ujzborcuzadiqvps5ya