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Books written in various periods of Islamic history are accepted as primary sources for their respective periods, notably those written by clerks (kātibs) of dīwāns and by persons who served in the state's institutions or who were close friends with the senior officials of the state. These include letters written by ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd al-Kātib (d. 132/750), the clerk of Marwān II (r. 127-132/744-750), the last Umayyad caliph; Ibn al-Muqaffaʾ, a witness of the transition period from the Umayyads todoi:10.12730/13091719.2018.92.184 fatcat:ouh2226cdjgf3m4kmxkbxwvp6a