Environmental Bisimulations for Probabilistic Higher-order Languages

Davide Sangiorgi, Valeria Vignudelli
2019 ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems  
Environmental bisimulations for probabilistic higher-order languages are studied. In contrast with applicative bisimulations, environmental bisimulations are known to be more robust and do not require sophisticated techniques such as Howe's in the proofs of congruence. As representative calculi, call-by-name and call-by-value λcalculus, and a (call-by-value) λ-calculus extended with references (i.e., a store) are considered. In each case full abstraction results are derived for probabilistic
more » ... ironmental similarity and bisimilarity with respect to contextual preorder and contextual equivalence, respectively. Some possible enhancements of the (bi)simulations, as 'up-to techniques', are also presented. Probabilities force a number of modifications to the definition of environmental bisimulations in non-probabilistic languages. Some of these modifications are specific to probabilities, others may be seen as general refinements of environmental bisimulations, applicable also to non-probabilistic languages. Several examples are presented, to illustrate the modifications and the differences.
doi:10.1145/3350618 fatcat:jrjqpy6xcfehtcs5pmvag3n23u