Murtakib al-Kabīra (Cardinal Sinner) and Takfīr (Excommunication) from the Perspective of Ibn Ḥaẓm: a Political and Theological Review [İbn Hazm Perspektifinden Büyük Günah ve Tekfîr: Politik ve Teolojik Açıdan Bir Değerlendirme]

Fikret Soyal
2019 Zenodo  
From the beginning of the first periods of Islamic theology, the concept of kufr is the most important amongst other terminology related to the judgement of murtakib al-kabīra (cardinal sinner) in this world and Hereafter. The purpose of this article is to focus on the problems in the use of takfīr (excommunication), which is the final judgement of murtakib al-kabīra representing the very extremism itself, against other views of other theological readings within kalām methodology. Ibn Ḥaẓm is
more » ... other major scholar who investigates the judgement of murtakib al-kabīra within the scope of faith in itself. Examining the understanding of takfīr in different kalam schools, Ibn Ḥaẓm also evaluates the use of this judgement in intellectual disputes. The relationship of īmān and 'amal (faith and deed) in the debates of kalam schools, some concepts such as īmān, kufr, fisq, shirk, nifāq and al-manzila bayn al-manzilatayn, some mentioned in the Qur'ān and some not, are in constant use. It is observed that some of these discussions were institutionalized and transformed into a school in the process. Thus, takfīr was not only a matter of only cardinal sins in later periods, but was also utilized for differences of opinions due to the different readings and interpretations arising from social and political factors. Thus, takfīr has been the issue for both religious and political purposes, which are two separate areas. Therefore, takfīr has been studied relying on its political disputes in a theological paradigm and its major feature, being weaponized to silence and overpower the opponent, has been emphasized in this work.
doi:10.5281/zenodo.3355737 fatcat:nij4iduxavd7xor7v722zupkpi