Irrigation Water Quality [chapter]

Mohammad Zaman, Shabbir A. Shahid, Lee Heng
2018 Guideline for Salinity Assessment, Mitigation and Adaptation Using Nuclear and Related Techniques  
The quality of irrigation waters differs in various regions, countries and locations based on how the groundwater has been extracted and used, the rainfall intensity and subsequent aquifer recharge. The use of groundwater for agriculture in hot arid countries where rainfall is scarce leads to increase groundwater salinity and limits the selection of crops for cultivation. It is therefore important to determine the irrigation water quality. The concentration and composition of soluble salts in
more » ... soluble salts in water determines its quality for irrigation. Four basic criteria for evaluating water quality for irrigation purposes are described, including water salinity (EC), sodium hazard (sodium adsorption ratio-SAR), residual sodium carbonates (RSC) and ion toxicity. Toxicities of boron and chlorides to plants are described. More specifically the relative tolerance levels of plants to boron is tabulated for easy understanding. The most important part of this chapter is the modification of water quality diagram of US Salinity Laboratory Staff published in the year 1954, this diagram does not present EC over 2250 μS cm -1 , however, most of the irrigation waters present salinity levels higher than 2250 μS cm À1 . Therefore, to accommodate higher water salinity levels the water classification diagram is extended to water salinity of 30,000 μS cm À1 allowing the users of the diagram to place EC values above 2250 μS cm À1 . The salinity and sodicity classes are included in this chapter to provide information for crop selection and develop salinity and sodicity management options. The procedures for water salinity reduction through blending of different waters and management of water sodicity using gypsum are described by giving examples.
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-96190-3_5 fatcat:goe6ho7y6ba7zcrmzd435kamdu