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Probiotics have been used to ameliorate gastrointestinal symptoms since ancient times. Over the past 40 years, probiotics have been shown to exert major effects on the immune system, both in vivo and in vitro. This interaction is clearly linked to gut microbes, their polysaccharide antigens, and key metabolites produced by these bacteria. At least four metabolic pathways have been implicated in mechanistic studies of probiotics, based on carefully studied animal models. doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0397.v1 fatcat:3hrxig3u5fez7hxfrsyz4bprsm