Laser scanning confocal endomicroscopy in the neurosurgical operating room: a review and discussion of future applications

Michael A. Mooney, Aqib H. Zehri, Joseph F. Georges, Peter Nakaji
2014 Neurosurgical Focus  
Laser scanning confocal endomicroscopy (LSCE) is an emerging technology for examining brain neoplasms in vivo. While great advances have been made in macroscopic fluorescence in recent years, the ability to perform confocal microscopy in vivo expands the potential of fluorescent tumor labeling, can improve intraoperative tissue diagnosis, and provides real-time guidance for tumor resection intraoperatively. In this review, the authors highlight the technical aspects of confocal endomicroscopy
more » ... al endomicroscopy and fluorophores relevant to the neurosurgeon, provide a comprehensive summary of LSCE in animal and human neurosurgical studies to date, and discuss the future directions and potential for LSCE in neurosurgery. key WorDS • brain neoplasm • resection • glioma • pathology • surgery • intraoperative • in vivo • confocal microscopy • diagnosis • neuronavigation 1 Abbreviations used in this paper: GBM = glioblastoma; ICG = indocyanine green; IGFBP7 = insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7; LSCE = laser scanning confocal endomicroscopy; LSCM = laser scanning confocal microscopy; 5-ALA = 5-aminolevulinic acid.
doi:10.3171/2013.11.focus13484 pmid:24484262 fatcat:vbzk2hnzwnhonoi7game5gx7bm