Cardiac MRI utilizing late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T1 mapping in the detection of radiation induced heart disease
Background and Purpose: Radiotherapy has been associated with late dose-dependent cardiovascular toxicity. In this cross-sectional pilot study, radiation dose distributions were correlated with areas of localized and diffuse myocardial fibrosis as measured by novel cardiac MRI (CMR) sequences including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T1 mapping with the goal to identify early markers of myocardial damage.Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with chest tumors including lung,
... luding lung, breast, esophagus, and lymphoma underwent CMR per study protocol on average 46.4 months (range 1.7-344.5) after radiotherapy. Patients without pretreatment cardiac history were included if the volume of heart receiving 5 Gy or more was at least 10% (V5Gy≥10%). The association of LGE with cardiac dosimetric factors, clinical factors (e.g., tumor type, smoking history, BMI), , and T1 values was analyzed. Results: Cardiac maximum (Dmax) and mean dose (Dmean) equivalent to doses delivered in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) were on average 50.9 Gy (range 6.2-108.0) and 8.2 Gy (range 1.0-35.7), respectively, compared to 60.8 Gy (40.8-108.0) and 6.8 Gy (1.8-21.8) among the 9 patients with LGE. Doses were not different between patients with and without LGE (p=0.16 and 0.56, respectively). The average T1 value of the left ventricle myocardium was 1009 ms (range 933-1117). No significant correlation was seen for heart Dmax and Dmean and T1 values (p=0.14 and 0.58, respectively). In addition, no significant association between clinical factors and the development of LGE was identified.Conclusions: No relation between cardiac doses, the presence of LGE or T1 values was observed. Further study is needed to determine the benefit of CMR for detecting radiotherapy-related myocardial fibrosis.