Screening of Promising Chemotherapeutic Candidates from Plants against Human Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (VI): Cardenolides from Asclepias curassavica

Daisuke Nakano, Kenji Ishitsuka, Maya Takashima, Rie Arima, Aya Satou, Ryota Tsuchihashi, Masafumi Okawa, Kazuo Tamura, Junei Kinjo
2020 Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin  
In the course of our screening program for novel chemotherapeutic candidates from plants against adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, the extracts of Asclepias curassavica L. showed potent activity against MT-1 and MT-2 cells. Therefore, we attempted to isolate their active components. We identified a new cardenolide, 19-dihydrocalactinic acid methyl ester (1), along with 16 known cardenolides (2-17). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. Almost all of the isolated
more » ... enolides inhibited the growth of both tumor cell lines. All the doubly linked cardenolides (11-17) except for 14 showed more potent activity than the other cardenolides. A comparison of the activities of 11, 14 and 16 revealed that the presence of hydroxy or acetoxy functional groups at C-16 led to a decrease in the activity. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of calotropin (11) against MT-2 cells was comparable to the potency of the clinical antineoplastic drug doxorubicin. The cytotoxic effect of 11 toward normal mononuclear cells obtained from the peripheral blood (PB-MNCs) was observed at a concentration 6 to 12 times higher than that used to induce growth inhibition against MT-1 and MT-2 cells. The proportions of annexin V-positive cells after 72 h of treatment with 11 were increased, indicating that it significantly induced apoptosis in MT-1 and MT-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Cell cycle experiments demonstrated that 11 arrested MT-1 and MT-2 cells at the G2/M phase. Therefore, compound 11 may be a promising candidate for the treatment of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
doi:10.1248/bpb.b20-00465 pmid:32999172 fatcat:rxopyn6cxrh7fe7h54dolt5nli