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Traits have been proposed as a more flexible mechanism than class inheritance for structuring code in object-oriented programming, to achieve fine-grained code reuse. A trait originally developed for one purpose can be adapted and reused in a completely different context. Formalizations of traits have been extensively studied, and implementations of traits have started to appear in programming languages. So far, work on formally establishing properties of trait-based programs has mostlydoi:10.1007/s00165-013-0278-3 fatcat:zft2d4oh7ff5nbv7lcmvjkylb4