Evaluation of Anal Cytology in Women with History of Abnormal Pap Smear, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia, Cervical Cancer and High Risk HPV for Anogenital Dysplasia
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Cervical and anal cancers have the same pathological, histological and embryological characteristics. Both of them originate from embryonic cloaca and are formed of a squamous and cylindrical epithelial joint. Both areas may show HPV-related normal metaplastic and abnormal dysplasia changes. Anal cancer is uncommon. Although uncommon, the incidence of anal cancer has increased among the general population of the United States and other countries over the past 30 years (Goldman et al., 1989;
... ract Background: Anal cancer is uncommon. Although uncommon, the incidence of anal cancer has increased among the general population of the United States and other countries over the past 30 years. We evaluated anal cytology in women with the history of abnormal pap smear, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer and high risk HPV for anogenital dysplasia. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 153 patients over the age of 21 years, referred to Imam Hossein Hospital in 1395-1396 who were being monitored due to abnormal pap smear, cervical cancer, CIN and high risk HPV, were evaluated with anal cytology for anogenital dysplasia. Results: 153 patients were enrolled in four main groups. Among those with a history of abnormal pap smear (39 patients), only 25% of the patients with HSIL had abnormal anal pap smear, and the rest of them had negative anal smear. Among those with a history of CIN (61 patients), patients with CIN III, 30.8% had abnormal anal smear, while the rest had a negative anal smear. Among those with a high risk of HPV (23 patients), 50% of the patients with concurrent positive HPV 16 and 18 had anal abnormal smear. Patients with a history of cervical cancer (30 patients) who had radiotherapy with or without surgery showed a negative anal smear. The ratio of anal SIL positive of individuals with a sexual partner was only 1.9%, while this ratio was 27.3% for those with more than one partner and this difference was statistically significant (P <0.0001). 15.4% of smokers had positive anal SIL test result, while, only 2.9% non-smokers had the same result, and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.03). 20% of the patients who had anal intercourse showed a positive anal SIL score result, compared to 1% for those who did not. This difference was statistically significant (P <0.0001). Conclusion: Among people with a history of abnormal cervical pap smear, CIN, cervical cancer and high-risk HPV during the last 6 months, abnormal anal tests are most commonly seen in patients who had risk factors such as anal sex, cigarette, multi partner etc. with high grade interepithelial squamous cervix such as HSIL, CIN III, HPV 16 and 18; more studies in larger sample size are needed to have the better conclusion.