Why Are Violent, Intra-state Conflicts Protracted? Looking at Azar's Model of Protracted Social Conflict from a Gender Perspective

Cordula Reiman
2002 Peace, Conflict and Development  
There is a rather elusive literature on gender/women and peace, non-violence and peace-building. Yet, a systematic, gender-sensitive critique of mainstream conflict analysis like Azar's model of protracted social conflict (PSC ) has been neglected. The paper aims at partly filling this analytical gap. It offers a gendersensitive critique of Azar's four clusters of communal content of a society, human needs, state's role and international linkages. This will be done on two levels: On the one
more » ... els: On the one hand, it will make some of the "invisible" spots and ideas of all four clusters "visible". On the other hand, it will introduce to gender-sensitive entry-points to Azar's model. To illustrate the argumentation, the analysis will take the Sri Lankan conflict as point of reference and take into account (selective) empirical evidence collected during a field trip in 2000. Biographical Note Cordula Reimann (PhD, MA, BA (Hons.)) just finished her doctorate on the gender dimensions of violent, intra-state conflicts and their management and transformation at the Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford. Cordula's doctorate entitled "Opening Up Spaces: Engendering Conflict and Conflict Transformation. An Analysis with Special Reference to the Protracted-social Conflict in Sri Lanka" was a gender-sensitive critique of conflict analysis and conflict management/transformation theory. Before she came to the Department of Peace Studies in1998, she worked in various peace research institutes and NGOs like the and has been active in local and national groups of amnesty international (ai) and worked in ai's international office in London. Cordula's PhD research has been completed and expanded by various publications on gender, conflict and conflict resolution and consultancy for different NGOs on gender mainstreaming crisis prevention and conflict management. Cordula welcomes constructive feed-back, lively debate and exchange of ideas. She can be contacted on
doi:10.7246/pcd.0201 fatcat:tzkfuag6kzcxfnxnyfvuptww74