Holographic optogenetic stimulation of patterned neuronal activity for vision restoration

Inna Reutsky-Gefen, Lior Golan, Nairouz Farah, Adi Schejter, Limor Tsur, Inbar Brosh, Shy Shoham
2013 Nature Communications  
When natural photoreception is disrupted, as in outer-retinal degenerative diseases, artificial stimulation of surviving nerve cells offers a potential strategy for bypassing compromised neural circuits. Recently, light-sensitive proteins that photosensitize quiescent neurons have generated unprecedented opportunities for optogenetic neuronal control, inspiring early development of optical retinal prostheses. Selectively exciting large neural populations are essential for eliciting meaningful
more » ... rceptions in the brain. Here we provide the first demonstration of holographic photo-stimulation strategies for bionic vision restoration. In blind retinas, we demonstrate reliable holographically patterned optogenetic stimulation of retinal ganglion cells with millisecond temporal precision and cellular resolution. Holographic excitation strategies could enable flexible control over distributed neuronal circuits, potentially paving the way towards high-acuity vision restoration devices and additional medical and scientific neuro-photonics applications. | www.nature.com/naturecommunications Figure 5 | Cellular-resolution optogenetic 'retinal stimulation fields'. (a) Fluorescent image of retina and multielectrode array (black dots) with superposed distribution of SFs (estimated using spike-triggered averaging of pseudo-random holographic patterns with 20 spots each). Scale bar, 200 mm (b,c) Examples where retinal SFs match (b) or do not correspond to (c) visualized ChR2-eYFP-expressing RGCs. Scale bars, 20 mm (d) Mean SF spatial distribution (n ¼ 202 units from 11 retinas). Scale bar, 50 mm.
doi:10.1038/ncomms2500 pmid:23443537 fatcat:po4zxqlrvrgw3hqhfrqndqr7u4