Migration out of Central Java: 1971–2010 [article]

Hasnani Rangkuti, University, The Australian National, University, The Australian National
Migration within Indonesia has a long history, a history associated with the uneven distribution of population across the archipelago that has persisted over centuries. Throughout this history, out-migration has been associated with population policy and, in particular, with one province, Central Java. The main objective of the thesis is to investigate contemporary patterns of population movement within Indonesia and to situate Central Java in the overall migration pattern. Specifically the
more » ... is examines patterns and changes in inter-provincial migration, calculates rates of primary, onward and return migration for Central Java, and investigates employment outcomes and marital assimilation of Central Java's migrants in selected destinations. Utilising the five censuses of Indonesia from 1971 to 2010, the thesis found that Central Java was the largest source of out-migration in all the censuses, and was strongly connected with movements into two provinces: Jakarta and Yogyakarta. I argue that the connectedness between Central Java and Jakarta is related to economic opportunities while similarity in culture and proximity are the key connectivities between Central Java and Yogyakarta. Over time, the proportion of primary and onward migration to Jakarta declined substantially. At the same time, the proportion moving to West Java increased significantly. A substantial proportion of Central Java primary migrants was also found in Kepulauan Riau. I argue that the decline in the proportion of primary and onward migration to Jakarta is due to the economic extension of Jakarta to its peripheral regions in West Java and Banten. Comparing three destinations, Central Java primary migrants are less likely, as opposed to non-migrants, to be employed in Semarang Metropolitan Region (SMR) and are more likely to be employed in Jakarta Metropolitan Region (JMR) and Batam-Bintan-Karimun (BBK). In JMR, Central Java primary female migrants are less likely to work in manufacturing relative to Central Java primary male migrants. In co [...]
doi:10.25911/5d7788929a911 fatcat:zxvvip7d5re25c4lnir4yrflra