Grouting and injection techniques to repair cracks and water leakage at the Renuka Devi Temple, Chandragutti, India
Popravljanje razpok s tehnikami ometavanja in nabrizgavanja v templju Renuka Devi, Chandragutti, Indija

G. Hareendranathan, J. Jairaj Stella, T. Selvaraj, N. Murugan
2020 Materiali in Tehnologije  
In the present research, characterization of ancient lime mortar from the 300-year-old Renukadevi Temple at Chandragutti, Karnataka, India, was carried out to propose an appropriate repair procedure for fixing a water leakage through the roof slab. The reason for the water seepage was a poor binder with the aggregate, with a ratio of 1:7. When the lime was washed away due to intense rain, the mortar became porous. XRD indicated that the original structure contains hydraulic lime with
more » ... ime with mineral-rich clay including calcite, aragonite, vaterite and tobermorite. The presence of tobermorite results in good performance and durability of the structure. The presence of organics rich in carbohydrate and protein was indicated by the FT-IR results. The repair mortar was simulated with an Oxal VP IT injection grout with 5 % of fermented kadukkai and jaggery as carbohydrate-rich organic sources. The rheological performance of the organic grout was good during Marsh-cone and stability test. After 28 days, the compressive strength of the 1:3 mortar was 1.13 N/mm 2 , suggesting it behaved like an artificial pozzolanic mortar with good strength. The organics played the main role in the carbonation of lime mortar and precipitation of tobermorite. A new organic grout compatible with the old mortar of the structure was prepared for the restoration. V pri~ujo~em~lanku avtorji predstavljajo raziskavo o karakterizaciji starodavne apnene malte na 300-letnem templju Renukadevi, ki se nahaja v Chandragutti, Karnataka, Indija. Raziskavo so izvedli, da bi na{li oziroma predlagali ustrezno malto za popravilo razpok na stre{nih plo{~ah, skozi katere pronica voda. Glavni razlog za pronicanje vode je slabo razmerje med vezivom in kamenimi agregati (1:7) tako, da je pri{lo do izpiranja apna med mo~nim de'jem in povzro~alo nastajanje porozne malte. Preiskave z rentgensko difrakcijo (XRD) so pokazale, da originalna struktura vsebuje hidravli~ni apnenec bogat z glinenimi minerali s kalcitom, aragonitom in vateritom, ki ga spremlja tobermorit. Posledica prisotnosti tobermorita je nastanek trdne in trajne strukture. S pomo~jo infrarde~e spektroskopije s Fourierovo transformacijo (FT-IR) so ugotovili tudi prisotnost organskih spojin bogatih na ogljikovih hidratih in proteinih. Simulacijo popravila so izvajali s postopkom nabrizgavanja Oxal VP -IT s 5 % fermentirano raztopino rastline haritaki (tudi kadukkai) in nerafiniranim trsnim sladkorjem (Jaggery), ki sta oba bogata z ogljikovodiki. Testa stabilnosti in z Marshevim lijem sta pokazala dobre reolo{ke lastnosti organske malte. Tla~na trdnost izdelanega materiala (me{anica malte in agregatov v razmerju 1:3) je bila po 28 dnevnem strjevanju podobna trdnosti umetne malte pozolana (vulkanski pepel), ki je znana po dobri trdnosti. Avtorji ugotavljajo, da organski dodatki igrajo pomembno vlogo pri karbonizaciji apnene malte precipitaciji tobermorita. Tako so avtorji pripravili za restavriranje templja novo ustrezno organsko malto s strukturo podobno starodavni malti.
doi:10.17222/mit.2019.250 fatcat:zzky4pkj3fctpdmle6hl36xcyu