Money matters: a multicenter cross-sectional study of depressive symptoms among the caregivers of children on peritoneal dialysis in Mainland China
Rui Zhao, Ying Gu, Xia Shen, Xianying Mai, Cheng Zhou, Yufen Zhang, Yihui Zhai, Qian Shen, Hong Xu, Qing Zhou
Background The caregivers of children on peritoneal dialysis face heavy care burdens and may have a high risk of depression. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and severity of depression and identify its related demographic and socioeconomic factors in the caregivers of children on peritoneal dialysis in China. Methods A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in four pediatric dialysis centers in four tertiary children's hospitals in mainland China. Primary caregivers of
... en with end-stage kidney disease and currently on peritoneal dialysis were screened and recruited from December 2018 to July 2019. A self-developed questionnaire and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were administered to the participants by a trained nurse in each center. The chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, one-way ANOVA, and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the prevalence of depressive symptoms by demographic features. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to depressive symptoms in caregivers of children on peritoneal dialysis. Results One hundred twenty-one caregivers were included in the data analysis. The mean age of the caregivers was 40.1 ± 8.1 years. More than 75% of the participants were female, married, and unemployed. The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was 59%. In total, 46 (38%), 20 (17%) and 5 (4%) caregivers reported mild, moderate, and severe depressive symptoms, respectively. In the univariate analysis, caregivers with an average household income per month under 4000 RMB and caregivers of children undergoing laparoscopic surgery had a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms. Characteristics such as treatment center, duration on PD, PD modalities, and history of peritonitis episodes showed no difference in terms of the prevalence of depressive symptoms. The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that an average household income per month under 4000 RMB was the associated factor for caregivers' depressive symptoms. Conclusions The caregivers of children on peritoneal dialysis in mainland China were socially vulnerable and experienced depression. Those who had a higher average household income were less vulnerable to depression.