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AbstractWind propulsion for commercial ships has been identified as a key component in the energy transition for the maritime industry. The sailing hybrid ship will operate with leeway (drift) angles to produce a lateral force known as sideforce, for steady operation under sail. In this paper, experimental results for the sailing performance of ships fitted with bilge keel appendages are presented. Systematic variations in appendage height, length, and position were tested, including severaldoi:10.1007/s00773-020-00777-8 fatcat:nhb54ahtwbf5rdsb5mbyermk2a