Prevalence and risk factors of nocturnal enuresis among children ages 5–12 years in Xi'an, China: a cross-sectional study

Hui-Mei Huang, Jing Wei, Shristi Sharma, Ying Bao, Fei Li, Jian-Wen Song, Hai-Bin Wu, Hong-Li Sun, Zhi-Juan Li, Huan-Nan Liu, Qian Wu, Hong-Li Jiang
2020 BMC Pediatrics  
Nocturnal enuresis (NE) has a negative impact on children's health and imposes a long-term burden on families. With economic development and cultural improvements, parents and medical professionals pay more attention to NE. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of NE among children ages 5-12 years in Xi'an, China. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to conduct a cross-sectional study of NE in 10 kindergartens and 20 primary schools in Xi'an. We used
more » ... nivariate analysis to compare the prevalences of characteristics such as gender, duration of disposable diaper (DD) use, toilet training onset time, daily living habits, academic performance, and family history of NE. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratio and to determine risk factors of NE. The study included 6568 children ages 5-12 years, of which 262 (3.99%) had NE. The prevalence rates of NE decreased with age, with the highest prevalence at age 5 (9.09% for boys; 6.03% for girls). However, the prevalence increased with duration of DD use. Children experienced more NE if they never accepted toilet training (7.83%) or if they drank sugary beverages during the day (5.36%). Sleep disorders, sweets intake, drinking low amounts of plain water during the day, and family history of NE, were statistically associated with NE. NE was closely associated with a family history of NE, being male, long-term use of DD, delayed toilet training, drinking sugary beverages and/or consuming little plain water, and sleep disorders. A supportive parental attitude towards NE and timely medical treatment can improve the quality of life of enuretic children.
doi:10.1186/s12887-020-02202-w pmid:32571248 fatcat:c7mm4xupsva5rcfutuuqou4i5u