Microwave interferometric radiometry in remote sensing: An invited historical review

M. Martín-Neira, D. M. LeVine, Y. Kerr, N. Skou, M. Peichl, A. Camps, I. Corbella, M. Hallikainen, J. Font, J. Wu, S. Mecklenburg, M. Drusch
2014 Radio Science  
The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made it to space. The technology behind such an achievement was developed, thanks to the effort of a community of researchers and engineers in different groups around the world. It was only because of their
more » ... work that SMOS finally became a reality. The fact that the European Space Agency, together with CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial), managed to get the project through should be considered a merit and a reward for that entire community. This paper is an invited historical review that, within a very limited number of pages, tries to provide insight into some of the developments which, one way or another, are imprinted in the name of SMOS. Microwave Interferometric Radiometry Aperture synthesis is a technique which was developed in the field of radio astronomy, based on the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem [Goodman, 1985] . According to this theorem the spatial frequencies (or visibility function) of a brightness temperature image can be obtained by cross correlating the radiated electric field at the two end points of a baseline. The baseline, measured in wavelengths, gives directly the value of the MARTIN-NEIRA ET AL.
doi:10.1002/2013rs005230 fatcat:v4lpbzfvybhsbaj7qzaofgozae