TUFTED PUFFINS (FRATERCULA CIRRHATA) RESPOND TO PREDATION DANGER DURING COLONY APPROACH FLIGHTS
The AUK: A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology
AяѠѡџюѐѡ.-In spite of their putative importance in the evolution of certain traits (e.g., nocturnality, coloniality, cliff nesting), the eff ects of aerial predators on behavior of adult seabirds at colonies have been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that TuĞ ed Puffi ns (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to danger posed by aerial predators by modifying their behavior to mitigate danger. We observed TuĞ ed Puffi ns making repeated colony fl y-ins and departures and characterized (1) the timing
... ed (1) the timing of this behavior, (2) the activity rate (number of birds arriving or departing), and (3) the risk-level of activity, with respect to predation danger posed by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus). As we predicted, we found that TuĞ ed Puffi ns (1) dilute danger by synchronizing their fl y-in and departure activities, (2) reduce fl y-in and departure activity rates when predators are present, and (3) switch to lower-risk fl y-in activities (e.g., staying over water where they have an escape route from an aerial aĴ ack) when predators are present.