Investigations into the superionic glass phase of Li$_{4}$PS$_{4}$I for improving the stability of high-loading all-solid-state batteries

Florian Strauss, Jun Hao Teo, Jürgen Janek, Torsten Brezesinski
In recent years, investigations into improving the performance of bulk-type solid-state batteries (SSBs) have attracted much attention. This is due, in part, to the fact that they offer an opportunity to outperform the present Li-ion battery technology in terms of energy density. Ni-rich Li$_{1+x}$(Ni$_{1-y-z}$Co$_{y}$Mn$_{z}$)$_{1-x}$O$_{2}$ (NCM) and lithium-thiophosphate-based solid electrolytes appear to be a promising material combination for application at the cathode side. Here, we
more » ... ide. Here, we report about exploratory investigations into the 1.5Li$_{2}$S/0.5P$_{2}$S$_{5}$/LiI phase system and demonstrate that a glassy solid electrolyte has more than an order of magnitude higher room-temperature ionic conductivity than the crystalline counterpart, tetragonal Li$_{4}$PS$_{4}$I with the P4/nmm space group (∼1.3 versus ∼0.2 mS cm$^{-1}$). In addition, preliminary results show that usage of the glassy 1.5Li$_{2}$S–0.5P$_{2}$S$_{5}$–LiI in pellet stack SSB cells with an NCM622 (60% Ni content) cathode and a Li$_{4}$Ti$_{5}$O$_{12}$ anode leads to enhanced capacity retention when compared to the frequently employed argyrodite Li$_{6}$PS$_{5}$Cl solid electrolyte. This indicates that, apart from interfacial instabilities, the stiffness (modulus) of the solid electrolyte and associated mechanical effects may also impact significantly the long-term performance. Moreover, SSB cells with the glassy 1.5Li$_{2}$S–0.5P$_{2}$S$_{5}$–LiI and high-loading cathode (∼22 mg$_{NCM622}$ cm$^{-2}$) manufactured using a slurry-casting process are found to cycle stably for 200 cycles at C/5 rate and 45 °C, with areal capacities in excess of 3 mA h cm$^{-2}$.
doi:10.5445/ir/1000126947 fatcat:bgwhmo6a4zhk5j47xdvaoy2vju