Hemichorea-Hemiballismus as an Unusual Presentation of Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome
American Journal of Medical Case Reports
Diabetes mellitus can lead to a diverse array of systemic complications. Poorly managed hyperglycemia can result in serious neurological consequences ranging from peripheral neuropathy to seizures and coma. A rare neurologic disorder seen in acute decompensated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is hemichorea-hemiballismus (HCHB). HCHB is a movement disorder primarily associated with cerebrovascular accidents of infarct or hemorrhagic origin. It is a condition that can occur in a diabetic patient,
... a diabetic patient, especially when no other signs or symptoms of hyperglycemia are present. It is urgent to recognize HCHB movement disorder quickly as it may be the only presenting sign of hyperglycemia and can alert medical personnel to a possible hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). We report an unusual case of HCHB in a patient with HHS, whose only presenting sign was unilateral hyperkinesis, which completely resolved after adequate blood glucose control. Prompt treatment and management of hyperglycemia yields an excellent prognosis in HCHB.