1900 The Lancet  
Rome, to begin with, has through her"Uffici d'Igiene e di Statistica Municipali " prepared a series of tavole grafiche " embodying the data in question, and these, eight in number and most accurately drawn up, have just been exposed to view in the Capitol preparatory to their being sent to their ultimate destination. Three of the tavole" " describe the rate of mortality-one i for diphtheria, typhoid fever, and small-pox, one for malaria, and one for tuberculosis. Of the others one has reference
more » ... s one has reference to the " movimento di mortalità" in general ; one to that movement" in relation to meteorological and demographic conditions ; another to the mortality of children from birth up to one month and from one month up to five years. Of the last two " tavole one gives the plan of the meatshambles (mattatoio) which, it is well known, are among the most perfect in the world; the other gives the hygienic and economico-commercial report for 1899, from which it may be gathered that the daily quota of meat consumption in Rome averages 0'109 kilogramme per each inhabitant and the annual quota 39-925 kilogrammes. Other figures confirm the induction arrived at in other capitals that meat consumption is not proportioned to the increase in the population but to the material prosperity of the individual. The "tavole " exhibiting the mortality due to diphtheria, typhoid fever, and small-pox from 1871 to 1899 show a very great improvement. Diphtheria, which in the first years from 1871 onwards figures heavily, in 1893 is in sensible diminution; typhoid fever, from a mean of 90 per 1000, sinks for a series of years to a much smaller total, and, what is important, sinks uniformly and steadily in that direction ; small-pox, again, which in the years immediately following 1871 reached enormous proportions, is proved, after obligatory vaccination, practically to have disappeared. Once more, the 11 tavola" denoting the death-rate from malaria, not only in the city but in the province of Rome, indicates for some years an appreciable decline, due certainly to the wider exhibition of quinine of a superior quality, while it also shows how the mortality is greatest among those not residing in the city. As much cannot be said for tuberculosis which maintains a high and steady death-rate. This malady, indeed, is the most formidable of those to which Italian flesh is heir, the " linea graphica" holding the highest and most constant position in the series and declaring itself (as yet) impregnable to the attacks which have reduced, if not exterminated, the others. As to the death-rate and birth-rate of Rome from 1702 to 1899, it is made manifest that in the later years the former has notably decreased while the latter has augmented. The "tavola" referring to the mortality in relation to meteorological and demographic conditions supplies a most instructive object lesson in the " ventennio " from 1880 to 1899. It is supplemented with an album containing 20 plates summing up the notifications day by day for every year. Most accurately compiled they enforce the consolatory truth that apart from tuberculosis, as already stated, the "movimento"of all other maladies affords irrefutable proof that the climatic and hygienic conditions of Rome are distinctly good-that, in short, " Roma non e malsana citt." A concluding word is due to the authors of these splendid and most instructive I I tavole. " Their draftsman is Signor Benigni acting under the direction of Dr.
doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(01)97326-x fatcat:ktdpak5bnbba5pr7qbs4ubdh2u