Extracellular Vesicles: Roles in Human Viral Infections, Immune-Diagnostic, and Therapeutic Applications

Ayodeji O. Ipinmoroti, Qiana L. Matthews
2020 Pathogens  
Membrane-bound vesicles that are released from cells are increasingly being studied as a medium of intercellular communication, as these act to shuttle functional proteins, such as lipids, DNA, rRNA, and miRNA, between cells during essential physiological processes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), most commonly exosomes, are consistently produced by virus-infected cells, and they play crucial roles in mediating communication between infected and uninfected cells. Notably, pathophysiological roles
more » ... for EVs have been established in various viral infections, including human immune deficiency virus (HIV), coronavirus (CoV), and human adenovirus (HAdv). Retroviruses, such as HIV, modulate the production and composition of EVs, and critically, these viruses can exploit EV formation, secretion, and release pathways to promote infection, transmission, and intercellular spread. Consequently, EV production has been investigated as a potential tool for the development of improved viral infection diagnostics and therapeutics. This review will summarize our present knowledge of EV–virus relationships, focusing on their known roles in pathophysiological pathways, immunomodulatory mechanisms, and utility for biomarker discovery. This review will also discuss the potential for EVs to be exploited as diagnostic and treatment tools for viral infection.
doi:10.3390/pathogens9121056 pmid:33348699 fatcat:2qammuupvvb3llg7fzbxcyfbba