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The problem investigated in this paper is identification of sensor that was used to obtain a given digital image. We show that the high-medium frequency component of the sensor pattern noise is an equivalent of "bullet scratches" for digital images and can be used for reliable forensic identification. For each sensor, we first calculate its reference pattern (an estimate of the sensor pattern noise) by averaging the noise component from multiple images. This pattern serves as a uniquedoi:10.1109/icip.2005.1530329 dblp:conf/icip/LukasFG05 fatcat:wbfwmchrlffsffb6vhvtk3yyse