Associated Effects of Cadmium and Copper Alter the Heavy Metals Uptake by Melissa Officinalis
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a popular herb widely used in medicine. It is often cultivated in soils with substantial heavy metal content. Here we investigate the associated effects of cadmium and copper on the plant growth parameters augmented by the manganese, zinc, and lead uptake indicators. The concentration of all elements in soil and plants was determined by the HR-CS FAAS with the ContrAA 300 Analytik Jena spectrometer. Bioavailable and total forms calculated for all examined
... ls were augmented by the soil analyses. The index of chlorophyll content in leaves, the activity of net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and intercellular concentration of CO2 were also investigated. Either Cd or Cu acting alone at high concentrations in soil are toxic to plants as indicated by chlorophyll indices and gas exchange parameters. Surprisingly, this effect was not observed when both metals were administered together. The sole cadmium or copper supplementations hampered the plant's growth, lowered the leaf area, and altered the plant's stem elongation. Analysis of variance showed that cadmium and copper treatments of lemon balm significantly influenced manganese, lead, and zinc concentration in roots and above ground parts.