A General Model of the Relationship between the Apportionment of Human Genetic Diversity and the Apportionment of Human Phenotypic Diversity
Human Biology: The Official Publication of the American Association of Anthropological Genetics
Models that examine genetic differences between populations alongside a genotypephenotype map can provide insight about phenotypic variation among groups. We generalize a simple model of a completely heritable, additive, selectively neutral quantitative trait to examine the relationship between single-locus genetic differentiation and phenotypic differentiation on quantitative traits. In agreement with similar efforts using different models, we show that the Pre-print version. Visit
... alcommons.wayne.edu/humbiol/ after publication to acquire the final version. Relethford, 2010) and other organisms (for reviews, see Whitlock, 2008; Leinonen et al., 2013) , finding that in the absence of selection, the expected degree to which groups differ on an additive, genetically determined trait does not depend on the number of loci that influence the trait. Put differently, a typical neutral trait conveys roughly the same degree of information about population membership as a single neutral locus, even if the trait is influenced by a large set of loci that would, if considered directly, permit accurate classification by population of origin. Recently, to facilitate direct comparisons of multilocus genetic classification, single-locus genetic differentiation, and phenotypic differentiation, we developed a model that combines a simple model of multilocus genetic classification with a simple genotype-phenotype map. Our model enables genotype-phenotype comparisons to be performed in a statistical framework that permits exact computation and does not require detailed evolutionary assumptions (Edge & Rosenberg, 2015) . Our results agreed with those found under other models, highlighting the differences between polygenic phenotypic differentiation and information about population membership at multiple genetic loci.