Composite CDE: modeling composite relationships between common data elements for representing complex clinical data

Hye Hyeon Kim, Yu Rang Park, Suehyun Lee, Ju Han Kim
2020 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making  
Semantic interoperability is essential for improving data quality and sharing. The ISO/IEC 11179 Metadata Registry (MDR) standard has been highlighted as a solution for standardizing and registering clinical data elements (DEs). However, the standard model has both structural and semantic limitations, and the number of DEs continues to increase due to poor term reusability. Semantic types and constraints are lacking for comprehensively describing and evaluating DEs on real-world clinical
more » ... ts. We addressed these limitations by defining three new types of semantic relationship (dependency, composite, and variable) in our previous studies. The present study created new and further extended existing semantic types (hybrid atomic and repeated and dictionary composite common data elements [CDEs]) with four constraints: ordered, operated, required, and dependent. For evaluation, we extracted all atomic and composite CDEs from five major clinical documents from five teaching hospitals in Korea, 14 Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) resources from FHIR bulk sample data, and MIMIC-III (Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care) demo dataset. Metadata reusability and semantic interoperability in real clinical settings were comprehensively evaluated by applying the CDEs with our extended semantic types and constraints. All of the CDEs (n = 1142) extracted from the 25 clinical documents were successfully integrated with a very high CDE reuse ratio (46.9%) into 586 CDEs (259 atomic and 20 unique composite CDEs), and all of CDEs (n = 238) extracted from the 14 FHIR resources of FHIR bulk sample data were successfully integrated with high CDE reuse ration (59.7%) into 96 CDEs (21 atomic and 28 unique composite CDEs), which improved the semantic integrity and interoperability without any semantic loss. Moreover, the most complex data structures from two CDE projects were successfully encoded with rich semantics and semantic integrity. MDR-based extended semantic types and constraints can facilitate comprehensive representation of clinical documents with rich semantics, and improved semantic interoperability without semantic loss.
doi:10.1186/s12911-020-01168-0 pmid:32620117 fatcat:a7y5x4nra5fvjhyvmpjwgniyym