Water Quality Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Kofi Sarpong Adu-Manu, Cristiano Tapparello, Wendi Heinzelman, Ferdinand Apietu Katsriku, Jamal-Deen Abdulai
2017 ACM transactions on sensor networks  
Water is essential for human survival. While approximately 71% of the world is covered in water, only 2.5% of this is fresh water; hence fresh water is a valuable resource that must be carefully monitored and maintained. In developing countries, 80% of people are without access to potable water. Cholera is still reported in over 50 countries. In Africa, 75% of the drinking water comes from underground sources that makes water monitoring an issue of key concern, as water monitoring can be used
more » ... track water quality changes over time, to identify existing or emerging problems and to design effective intervention programs to remedy water pollution. It is important to have detailed knowledge of potable water quality to enable proper treatment and also prevent contamination. In this paper, we review methods for WQM from traditional manual methods to more technologically advanced methods employing Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for in-situ WQM. In particular, we highlight recent developments in the sensor devices, data acquisition procedures, communication and network architectures, and power management schemes to maintain a long-lived operational WQM system. Finally, we discuss open issues that need to be addressed to further advance automatic WQM using WSNs.
doi:10.1145/3005719 fatcat:bwpsetsadffnxi26nm2ls3cz7m