Comparison of toxin overlay and solid-phase binding assays to identify diverse CryIA(c) toxin-binding proteins in Heliothis virescens midgut
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
The binding proteins, or receptors, for insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki ␦-endotoxins are located in the brush border membranes of susceptible insect midguts. The interaction of one of these toxins, CryIA(c), with proteins isolated from Heliothis virescens larval midguts was investigated. To facilitate the identification of solubilized putative toxin-binding proteins, a solid-phase binding assay was developed and compared with toxin overlay assays. The overlay assays
... ted that a number of proteins of 170, 140, 120, 90, 75, 60, and 50 kDa bound the radiolabeled CryIA(c) toxin. Anion-exchange fractionation allowed the separation of these proteins into three toxin binding fractions, or pools. Toxin overlay assays demonstrated that although the three pools had distinct protein profiles, similar-size proteins could be detected in these three pools. However, determination of toxin affinity by using the solid-phase binding assay showed that only one of the three pools contained high-affinity binding proteins. The K d obtained, 0.65 nM, is similar to that of the unsolubilized brush border membrane vesicles. Thus, the solid-phase binding assay in combination with the toxin overlay assay facilitates the identification and purification of high-affinity B. thuringiensis toxin-binding proteins from the insect midgut.