Profile of Anisometropia and Aniso-Astigmatism in Children: Prevalence and Association with Age, Ocular Biometric Measures, and Refractive Status

Lisa O'Donoghue, Julie F. McClelland, Nicola S. Logan, Alicja R. Rudnicka, Chris G. Owen, Kathryn J. Saunders
2013 Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science  
PURPOSE. We describe the profile and associations of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism in a population-based sample of children. METHODS. The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER) study used a stratified random cluster design to recruit a representative sample of children from schools in Northern Ireland. Examinations included cycloplegic (1% cyclopentolate) autorefraction, and measures of axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature. v 2 tests were used to
more » ... ess variations in the prevalence of anisometropia and anisoastigmatism by age group, with logistic regression used to compare odds of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism with refractive status (myopia, emmetropia, hyperopia). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine interocular differences in ocular biometry. RESULTS. Data from 661 white children aged 12 to 13 years (50.5% male) and 389 white children aged 6 to 7 years (49.6% male) are presented. The prevalence of anisometropia ‡1 diopters sphere (DS) did not differ statistically significantly between 6-to 7-year-old (8.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9-13.1) and 12-to 13-year-old (9.4%; 95% CI, 5.9-12.9) children. The prevalence of aniso-astigmatism ‡1 diopters cylinder (DC) did not vary statistically significantly between 6-to 7-year-old (7.7%; 95% CI, 4.3-11.2) and 12-to 13-year-old (5.6%; 95% CI, 0.5-8.1) children. Anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism were more common in 12-to 13-yearold children with hyperopia ‡þ2 DS. Anisometropic eyes had greater axial length asymmetry than nonanisometropic eyes. Aniso-astigmatic eyes were more asymmetric in axial length and corneal astigmatism than eyes without anisoastigmatism. CONCLUSIONS. In this population, there is a high prevalence of axial anisometropia and corneal/axial aniso-astigmatism, associated with hyperopia, but whether these relations are causal is unclear. Further work is required to clarify the developmental mechanism behind these associations. (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:602-608)
doi:10.1167/iovs.12-11066 pmid:23233258 fatcat:4dzthfchnfgyhphtpjudofximu