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Anthropogenic biological invasions are a leading threat to aquatic biodiversity in marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Ballast water discharged from transoceanic ships is commonly believed to be the dominant pathway for species introduction and is therefore increasingly subject to domestic and international regulation. However, compared to species introductions from ballast, trans-location by biofouling of ships' exposed surfaces has been poorly quantified. We reportdoi:10.3391/ai.2007.2.2.7 fatcat:nme5xnzdazchxnadzncsdh4bmm