Microbiota and Its Impact on the Immune System in COVID-19—A Narrative Review

Marzena Jabczyk, Justyna Nowak, Bartosz Hudzik, Barbara Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska
2021 Journal of Clinical Medicine  
The microbiota is of interest for the development of a therapeutic strategy against SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to its impact on the host immune system. Proven communications of the gut microbiota with the pulmonary microbiota (gut–lung axis) and the pathway of neural connections between the gut and brain (gut–brain axis) may be important in the face of the pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 was shown to affect almost all organs because of the presence of a host receptor known as
more » ... ensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The ACE2 receptor is mainly present in the brush border of intestinal enterocytes, ciliary cells, and type II alveolar epithelial cells in the lungs. The transport function of ACE2 has been linked to the ecology of gut microbes in the digestive tract, suggesting that COVID-19 may be related to the gut microbiota. The severity of COVID-19 may be associated with a number of comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and/or old age; therefore, attention is also paid to multiple morbidities and the modulation of microbiota through comorbidities and medications. This paper reviews the research in the context of the state of the intestinal microbiota and its impact on the cells of the immune system during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
doi:10.3390/jcm10194537 pmid:34640553 fatcat:yd2ujh472bdrhgpje73oh63mau